LBCS Structure Dimension with Descriptions

Structure is one of five dimensions in LBCS. Each dimension is an attribute that takes the appropriate four-digit code.

Code


Structures with Descriptions

Color

1000 Residential buildings #FFFF00

This is a catch-all category for all buildings built for residential purposes.

1100

Single-family buildings

Also includes any single-unit structure for habitation. The emphasis here is "single" and not "family." Includes split-level homes, linked group (houses that share foundations), manufactured homes, etc.

1110

Detached units

Standard single-family residential structures.

1120

Attached units

Usually two or more dwelling units side-by-side sharing one roof, but each unit has a separate front and rear access.

1121

Duplex structures

Generally a two-unit building that is divided horizontally, and each unit has a separate entrance from the outside or through a common vestibule. For semi-detached, double-duplexes, quadraplexes, maisonettes, etc., count the number of units in the structure and use the appropriate multifamily structure category. For applications that need to track the precise configuration, use additional fields or attributes in the land-use database.

1122

Zero lot line, row houses, etc.

This was a traditional planning category that is fast falling out of use. Many manufactured home developments are configured as zero lot line developments, townhouses are a form of zero lot line housing, and to further confuse the usage, former row houses are also used as barracks, group housing, or farm housing. Avoid this category if possible, but it is provided here for compatibility with many existing land-use databases that have this description.

1130

Accessory units

Use this category for an accessory unit, which is structurally separate and distinct from the main structure. An accessory unit is a second dwelling unit (structure-wise) that is added to an existing lot for use as a complete and independent facility. Note that not all accessory units have residential activities. For an accessory use (not structure) that is part of the main structure or not incidental to the primary use, classification options vary. Such a unit is also known as a "granny flat." See the working paper on Mixed Uses and Accessory Uses for a discussion of the full range of issues associated with accessory uses and their implications for land-use data classifications.

1140

Townhouses

A type of structure that has three or more separate dwelling units divided vertically, and each unit has separate entrances to a front and rear yard.

1150

Manufactured housing

Also commonly referred to as factory-built housing, which includes modular, mobile homes, and manufactured homes. The differences are subtle but, if a land-use application needs these finer gradations, create another attribute table to track the various kinds of factory-built housing.

1200

Multifamily structures

The following categories refer to the number of units and not by the number of floors or stories in the structure. For counting the number of households, have a separate field in the land-use database that lists the number of actual households in the building. For tracking the number of floors in a structure, use another attribute field. In short, this dimension is only for tracking the total number of units in a structure to get an indication of how big the structure is.

1202

Two Units

1203

Three Units

1204

Four Units

1205

Five Units

1206

Six Units

1207

Seven Units

1208

Eight Units

1209

Nine Units

1210

Ten Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "up to ten units."

1211

Eleven Units

1212

Twelve Units

1213

Thirteen Units

1214

Fourteen Units

1215

Fifteen Units

1216

Sixteen Units

1217

Seventeen Units

1218

Eighteen Units

1219

Nineteen Units

1220

Twenty Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "between ten and twenty units."

1221

Twenty-one Units

1222

Twenty-two Units

1223

Twenty-three Units

1224

Twenty-four Units

1225

Twenty-five Units

1226

Twenty-six Units

1227

Twenty-seven Units

1228

Twenty-eight Units

1229

Twenty-nine Units

1230

Thirty Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "between twenty and thirty units."

1231

Thirty-one Units

1232

Thirty-two Units

1233

Thirty-three Units

1234

Thirty-four Units

1235

Thirty-five Units

1236

Thirty-six Units

1237

Thirty-seven Units

1238

Thirty-eight Units

1239

Thirty-nine Units

1240

Forty Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "between thirty and forty units."

1241

Forty-one Units

1242

Forty-two Units

1243

Forty-three Units

1244

Forty-four Units

1245

Forty-five Units

1246

Forty-six Units

1247

Forty-seven Units

1248

Forty-eight Units

1249

Forty-nine Units

1250

Fifty Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "between forty and fifty units."

1251

Fifty-one Units

1252

Fifty-two Units

1253

Fifty-three Units

1254

Fifty-four Units

1255

Fifty-five Units

1256

Fifty-six Units

1257

Fifty-seven Units

1258

Fifty-eight Units

1259

Fifty-nine Units

1260

Sixty Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "between fifty and sixty units."

1261

Sixty-one Units

1262

Sixty-two Units

1263

Sixty-three Units

1264

Sixty-four Units

1265

Sixty-five Units

1266

Sixty-six Units

1267

Sixty-seven Units

1268

Sixty-eight Units

1269

Sixty-nine Units

1270

Seventy Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "between sixty and seventy units."

1271

Seventy-one Units

1272

Seventy-two Units

1273

Seventy-three Units

1274

Seventy-four Units

1275

Seventy-five Units

1276

Seventy-six Units

1277

Seventy-seven Units

1278

Seventy-eight Units

1279

Seventy-nine Units

1280

Eighty Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "between seventy and eighty units."

1281

Eighty-one Units

1282

Eighty-two Units

1283

Eighty-three Units

1284

Eighty-four Units

1285

Eighty-five Units

1286

Eighty-six Units

1287

Eighty-seven Units

1288

Eighty-eight Units

1289

Eighty-nine Units

1290

Ninety Units

When using a three-level coding scheme, apply this category to mean "more than eighty units."

1291

Ninety-one Units

1292

Ninety-two Units

1293

Ninety-three Units

1294

Ninety-four Units

1295

Ninety-five Units

1296

Ninety-six Units

1297

Ninety-seven Units

1298

Ninety-eight Units

1299

Ninety-nine Units and more

1300

Other specialized residential structures

For tracking the number of occupants, guest rooms, or beds, use additional attributes or fields in the land-use database.

1310

Barracks

Primarily associated with housing for uniformed services (police, military, etc.). For tracking number of occupants, guest rooms, or beds, use additional attributes or fields in the land-use database.

1320

Dormitories

Primarily associated with an institution that provides sleeping units and communal dining facilities. For tracking the number of occupants, guest rooms, or beds, use additional attributes or fields in the land-use database.

1330

Hotels, motels, and tourist courts

For tracking the number of occupants, guest rooms, or beds, use additional attributes or fields in the land-use database.

1340

Single room occupancy units

Historically, many hotels and motels are converted to SROs. Even new SRO buildings are structurally no different from hotels. But many have small cooking facilities (independent or common) and other amenities not associated with a hotel. SROs may also have building code specifications different from hotels and motels. For tracking the number of occupants, guest rooms, or beds, use additional attributes or fields in the land-use database.

1350

Temporary structures, tents, etc. for shelter

For tracking the number of occupants, guest rooms, or beds, use additional attributes or fields in the land-use database.

1360

Other structurally converted buildings

This is a catch-all category for all other residential structure types that do not easily classify in any of the other residential categories. For tracking the number of occupants, guest rooms, or beds, use additional attributes or fields in the land-use database.

2000 Commercial buildings and other specialized structures #FF0000

Use this as a catch-all category when sufficient detail about structure types are not available (for example, when using remotely sensed data).

2100

Office or bank building

Buildings constructed for office-type uses. Typically these buildings constitute the majority of nonresidential structures in a community.

2110

Office building with drive-through facility

An office building with drive-in windows to serve customers in automobiles.

2200

Store or shop building

Most retail stores fall in this category. Use this as a catch-all category when sufficient detail about structure types are not available (for example, when using remotely sensed data).

2210

Shop or store building with drive-through facility

A building with drive-in windows to serve customers in automobiles.

2220

Restaurant building

Restaurant buildings that serve food for customers for consumption on or off premises. These structures may also be characterized by specialized cooking, serving, and health and hygiene equipment.

2230

Standalone store or shop building

A catch-all category for most commercial and retail business structures.

2240

Department store building

These buildings are characterized by large commercial spaces for retail or wholesale sales although they may be reconfigured for other uses. Use this category for urban and downtown department stores that look similar to office or standalone store, but have specialized building features (store fronts, display windows, large atriums, etc.).

2250

Warehouse discount store building

These structures are primarily warehouse in structural character, but also have other structural features convenient for large discount stores and "big-box retail" establishments.

2260

Market shops including open markets

Structures in this category include typical market shops and farmers markets with or without outdoor sales and service areas in single or groups of buildings with stalls for retail or wholesale commercial activities.

2270

Gasoline station

Structures that are specialized for selling gasoline with storage tanks, often underground or hidden. They may have bays for car washes. For convenience stores that sell gasoline, use the convenience store category.

2280

Automobile repair and service structures

Includes service garages and other structures that have bays for automobile service. These are specialized structures for auto repair and service.

2300

Office or store building with residence on top

Use this category for areas that the land-use database is not recording as multiple uses in a structure. Structurally, they may have some unique characteristics. Many planning applications in older neighborhoods can apply this category for large portions of their inventory.

2400

Office building over storefronts

This is a catch-all category to differentiate office buildings with street-level retail uses from a purely office building. Structurally, they are similar to a regular office building but vary in their treatment of street-level portion of the structure. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension.

2500

Malls, shopping centers, or collection of shops

Shopping center refers to a group of retail establishments that are located (and sometimes managed) as a single property. Most provide on-site parking, and their size and configuration reflect the kinds of merchandise and trade area characteristics. The two basic structure types are malls and open-air strip centers.

2510

Neighborhood center (convenience with one or more anchors)

Usually configured as a straight-line strip with no enclosed walkway or mall area; sometimes a canopy may connect the storefronts.

2520

Community center (general merchandise with two or more anchors)

Usually configured as a strip (straight line, "U", or "L" shaped) center. Of all the varieties of shopping centers, these are by far the most common type and are configured in the widest range. Other terms used to describe this type are: discount centers (if anchored by a discount store), or off-price centers (if anchored by an off-price retailer).

2530

Regional center (enclosed mall with two or more anchors)

Usually configured as an enclosed mall with an inward orientation of the stores and have common walkways with parking areas around the perimeter of the building. Sizes vary from 400,000 to 800,000 square feet on sites ranging from 40 to 100 acres, and have a 5- to 15-mile primary trade area radius. Typically serves a region with general merchandise in full depth and variety. Apparel stores are usually the anchors. They may be traditional, mass merchant, or discount department variety. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension.

2540

Superregional center (similar to regional, but has three or more anchors)

Usually configured as an enclosed mall and may even have multiple levels. Sizes vary from 800,000 square feet and above on sites ranging from 60 to 120 acres, and have a 5- to 25-mile primary trade area radius. Typically serves the same purpose as a regional center, only with more anchors. Other terms used for this category include "super off-price malls" and "mega mall." Several anchors (three or more) offer more variety and depth of merchandise than a regional center. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension.

2550

Fashion/specialty center (higher end, fashion-oriented stores)

Usually configured as a mall, emphasizing rich decor and landscaping.

Sizes vary from 80,000 to 250,000 square feet on sites ranging from 5 to 25 acres, and have a 5- to 15-mile primary trade area radius.

Typically has upscale shopping. Also known as vertical market center. It need not have an anchor, but if it does, it is usually an apparel shop. Sometimes restaurants and entertainment play the anchor role. Other shops include boutiques and craft shops that offer unique merchandise of high quality and price. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension.

2560

Power center (category-dominated anchors with few small tenants)

Usually configured as a collection of several freestanding anchors and a few, if any, small tenants.

2570

Theme or festival center (leisure, tourist-oriented, restaurants)

Mostly located in urban areas and sometimes adapted to historic buildings or other related urban activities nearby. They can also be one component of a large mixed-use project.

2580

Outlet or discount center (manufacturer outlet stores)

Strip configuration is the most common format, but others include malls and "village cluster." Many also have outdoor sales areas. Sizes vary from 50,000 to 400,000 square feet on sites ranging from 10 to 50 acres (some may be as big an 100 acres), and have a 25- to 75-mile primary trade area radius.

2590

Other kinds of shopping centers

These categories are mainly for those applications that may want further differentiation. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension.

2591

Convenience stores or centers

Usually configured as a stand-alone store from the smallest size to a few thousand square feet of space. It is typically anchored by a mini-mart, gas station, or a 24-hour general store. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension. For gas stations, use the gasoline service station category.

2592

Home improvement center

Structurally, these centers are no different from other types of store buildings. Sometimes, they have outdoor sales or storage of merchandise. Sizes vary from a few hundred to several thousand square feet of enclosed space. Such a center is typically anchored by a hardware, furniture, carpet, or other store specializing in merchandise for home improvement. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension.

2593

Car care center

Structurally, they are similar to other store buildings, but some may include repair garages, car washes, and other similar automobile-specific construction. Typical functions include sales of auto parts, auto repairs, tires, and other auto-related merchandise. Track the establishments in this type of structure by applying the appropriate code(s) from the function dimension.

2600

Industrial buildings and structures

Use this as a catch-all category when sufficient detail about structure types are not available (for example, when using remotely sensed data).

2610

Light industrial structures and facilities

Many industrial structures were described by their roof design (saw tooth, monitor, etc.). But modern industrial structures may look no different from an office building.

2611

Loft building

Multistoried industrial building, often with higher ceilings and wider columns than a comparable office building. They are popular structures for rehab to residential activities. Other rehab adaptations include art galleries, selling books, computer data centers, mail order centers, and general office space.

2612

Mill-type factory structures

These are older single or multistory factories, common in many older industrial areas, and supported by large wood beams and columns. They are popular structures for rehab to activities that are not industrial (art galleries, book selling, computer data centers, mail order centers, etc.). For lumber mills, see the agricultural facilities category.

2613

One-story modern manufacturing plants

Many newer industrial structures may look and generate impacts like a typical office building, but they rely on special power, water, or waste disposal systems for operations.

2614

Industrial parks

Also known as research and development parks, these are one or more buildings used for light industrial activities, often by several independent enterprises, that may share common loading, parking, and business services. Sometimes they are also referred to as business incubators that are similar to a light industrial structure but differ in the duration of tenancy (incubators only lease for a year to two to help a business in its initial development). Industrial malls, structurally, are like business incubators, but without tenancy restrictions.

2615

Laboratory or specialized industrial facility

A catch-all category for unique and specialized structures that cannot be easily classified under light industrial structures.

2620

Heavy industrial structures and facilities

Typically the largest facilities in a community, these structures house complex operations, some of which might be continuous (operated 24 hours a day, seven days a week). Because these facilities are constructed for specific occupants, they have a high degree of obsolescence. Because the subcategories mirror those used by industrial property appraisers, appraisal data sets may already contain some or all these distinctions.

2621

Assembly and construction-type plants

A typical heavy manufacturing facility.

2622

Process plants (metals, chemicals, etc.)

Process sometimes also applies to oil refineries, which are categorized separately.

2630

Oil refinery facility

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

2631

Refinery with anchored equipment < 100,000 barrels/day

2632

Refinery with unanchored equipment < 100,000 barrels/day

2633

Refinery with anchored equipment > 100,000 barrels/day

2634

Refinery with unanchored equipment > 100,000 barrels/day

2635

Refinery pumping plant with anchored equipment

2636

Refinery pumping plant with unanchored equipment

2700

Warehouse or storage facility

Includes public storage, mini-warehouse, mini-storage, and other storage buildings.

2710

Mini-warehouse

2720

High-rise mini-warehouse

2730

Warehouse structure

Does not include grain elevator structures; they should be classified in agricultural structures.

2740

Produce warehouse

Specialized warehouse structures for storing, sorting, repackaging, and, sometimes, wholesale selling of produce.

2750

Refrigerated warehouse or cold storage

Large industrialized warehouse structures with specialized cold storage and climate control facilities.

2760

Large area distribution or transit warehouse

A subcategory for specifying large warehouse structures that occupy several acres of land.

2770

Wharf and dock shed

Waterfront structures for marine and water-based enterprises.

2780

Tank farms

Tanks that primarily store fuel, oil, and other liquid products (except water). Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

2781

Tank farms with anchored tanks

2782

Tank farms with unanchored tanks

3000 Public assembly structures #A020F0

An essential category for many planning applications related to public safety, transportation, and emergency management. The subcategories give a broad variety of public assembly but, if your application needs more precision, create subcategories at the four-digit level under the appropriate broader category.

3100

Theater

Theaters are specialized structures for housing dramatic presentations, stage entertainments, motion- picture shows, and similar events that entail mass assembly of people. Most theaters have a stage or a screen for viewing. Some theaters may also have more than one stage for the same viewing area or have multiple screens (one on each wall of the

3110

Performance theater

Includes concert halls and other structures with fixed seats arranged on a sloped or stepped floor; may seat 300 to 3,000 people.

3120

Movie theater

A movie theater is a specialized theater for showing movies or motion pictures. The primary structural difference between a theater and a movie theater is the projection screen. However, many movie theaters can be easily adapted for stage performances and many stages have folding screens for movie projections. Although screen shapes are mostly rectangular, they come in a variety of shapes. Also, some special-purpose multimedia movie theaters use multiple screens (one on each wall face) or the entire ceiling surface, which are sometimes curved or geodesic in shape. Other terms used to describe these structures include talkies, cinema theaters, and motion pictures. This category also includes cineplexes — complex structures with multiple movie theaters, each theater capable of providing performances independent of the others in the complex. Structurally, theaters in a cineplex are grouped in a manner that allows them to share box or ticket offices, parking facilities, lobby areas, restrooms, concession stands, signs and marquee displays, and other service and maintenance facilities. These structures first started appearing in shopping centers and malls, sometimes integrated with the layout of the mall. Historically, a cineplex meant a theater complex with two or more movie theaters. Popular configurations have nine or twelve theaters. But as structures evolved to accommodate twenty or more theaters, the movie-theater industry started using such terms as multiplex, megaplex, and mega theater to differentiate these newer configurations from older cineplex layout. But there is no clear structural distinction between a cineplex and a megaplex. The distinction between a cineplex and a megaplex has been further blurred because developers sometimes retrofit cineplexes with more screens, often smaller, within the existing structure.

3130

Amphitheater

Some can accommodate 15,000 to 20,000 spectators. Modern versions have fixed seating (about 40% of capacity) under a roof (but no walls) and the remaining spectators spread out on sloping lawns. They are very popular for summer music concerts.

3140

Drive-in theaters

3200

Indoor games facility

Many bowling alleys, golf ranges, skating rinks, etc., do not have large spectator seating areas but cater to a large number of people playing in the facility. If necessary, create subcategories here for to differentiate between structures (skating rinks from golf ranges, for example).

3300

Sports stadium or arena

Structurally, the main distinction between a stadium and an arena is its size. Stadiums are larger than arenas and seat 40,000 to more than 100,000 spectators; arenas typically seat 8,000 to 22,000. The layout of seating and sight lines in stadiums follow a fixed sport (baseball or football), whereas arenas are designed around the flat, central space whose size is about the size of a basketball court. Arenas also host circuses, ice shows, indoor soccer, hockey games, horse shows, and music concerts. Increasingly, many stadiums, especially domed facilities, are serving arena-like events.

3400

Exhibition, convention, or conference structure

A typical exhibition hall facility occupies several city blocks and contains 50,000 to 700,000 square feet of contiguous flat floor space. These halls have high ceilings (25 to 35 feet) and can accommodate a variety of events. Some very large cities (Chicago, for example) have multilevel exhibition halls. Convention structures have both an exhibition hall and a number of meeting rooms. Many also have kitchen and banquet facilities, and an auditorium for special events. Trade shows, public shows, conventions, food functions, receptions, dances, banquets, assemblies, and other activities are typically hosted in these structures. Multipurpose structures have combinations of exhibition, convention, and arena facilities. Some of these may be co-located or created out of a single enclosed space that is reconfigured. This category also includes the horseshoe-shaped auditorium buildings popular in the 1930s and 1940s in many midsize to big cities. These structures have a fixed stage at one end of a flat floor area on which were portable seats on risers and fixed seats on other levels. Multipurpose arenas have since replaced these kinds of structures. Trade centers are not included here. They are usually a special-purpose office building for a specific group of enterprises (brokers, importers, freight forwarders, etc.). These structures belong in the office building category. Merchandise marts also serve the same purpose as trade centers but also have permanent exhibit space (30,000 to 50,000 square feet) with lower ceilings than exhibition halls. These structures serve specific consumer-oriented industries (gifts, apparel, furniture, floor coverings, computers, etc.). Because many cities do not have such facilities, these trade groups often use existing exhibition and convention facilities. In Europe, exhibition hall facilities are also known as congress centers.

3500

Churches, synagogues, temples, mosques, etc.

These are specialized religious structures that have pulpits, choirs, musical instruments, such as organs, pianos, and bands, besides large seating areas. Some churches, mosques, temples and other similar religious structures may also have towers (bell towers in churches, minars in mosques, or pagodas in temples). Many religious structures also have classrooms (for Sunday school activities) and residential quarters for one or two families. But the structures are primarily designed for worship and religious congregations. Some modern wedding chapels and structures that accommodate a wide range of religious or social activities are also included here. Architecturally, church buildings have been known as either a schoolhouse, modern, traditional, courthouse, utility, or storefront churches. Except for the storefront variety, all these structures belong in this category. If an application needs to differentiate, use the definitions below to create subcategories. Schoolhouse churches look like one-room schoolhouses, typically frame-built in a rectangular shape with a double row of pews to define the cruciform aisle, and the pulpit centered at the head of the main aisle. Modern churches refer to the explosion of innovative church forms popular with designers after World War II. They take many shapes and sizes with visually striking features (large entrances, long masonry spires, etc.). Traditional churches refer to the standard rectangular plan with steep roof pitches, masonry built, and sometimes having tall bell towers or steeples. Courthouse churches reflect the 1875-1925 American municipal architecture of urban centers. These centers often included the town bank, city hall, post office, and other public uses along with a church building designed to look like the courthouse. Utility churches are buildings with low roofs, often constructed of concrete blocks, sometimes with vinyl sidings, and pointed or spiked steeples, if any. They primarily serve small independent denominations. Not included in this category: Storefront churches refer to a store or a similar structure not typically used for religious activities that is now used as a meeting place for a congregation. Structures adapted for congregations include barns, stores, warehouses, old public buildings, and single-family houses. The structure dimension should classify such structures in the appropriate structure category. Use the activity dimension to specify the religious congregation activities and the function dimension to identify the religious establishment. Megachurches are mostly large structures that can seat several thousand people and have a variety of amenities and host a wide range of activities. The main structure has a stage with a pulpit with arena-style seating. It may also include facilities for teaching, broadcasting, entertaining, and selling gifts, books, and other paraphernalia. They may also include a chapel for weddings and funerals. The architecture and interior design evoke a convention or civic center design and also generate similar traffic and impacts. Such structures should be classified under exhibition and convention center category. Any other facility that has been converted for religious events and congregations (houses, office buildings, community centers, etc.)

3600

Capitol buildings

Structures specialized for assembly of elected and other public officials to conduct public discourse. Although the main enclosure is similar to many stepped or raised floor plans of theaters and auditoriums, the overall structural characteristics of a capitol building includes other structures and facilities associated with office-type activities.

3700

Covered or partially covered atriums and public enclosures

Often found in downtown locations that provide shelter for large public gatherings and communal activities.

3800

Other community structures

This is a catch-all category for all other mass assembly structures, including community halls, reception halls, wedding halls, etc.

3900

Passenger assembly

3910

Mixed mode terminal

3920

Airport terminal

3930

Bus terminal

3940

Train station

Create subcategories if applications require specific train station type (long distance versus transit). But many long distance stations also serve transit and local trains.

3950

Harbor or port terminal

4000 Institutional or community facilities #0000FF

Use this as a catch-all category when sufficient detail about structure types are not available (for example, when using remotely sensed data).

4100

Medical facility

4110

Hospital building

4120

Medical clinic building

4200

School or university buildings

4210

Grade school

4220

College or university facility

4230

Trade or specialty school facility

4300

Library building

4400

Museum, exhibition, or similar facility

4410

Exhibitions and art galleries

4420

Planetarium

4430

Aquarium

4440

Outdoor facility, no major structure

4450

Zoological parks

Besides the normal viewing and tourist areas, zoos may also have special structures and enclosures for various zoological and botanical habitats. They also have extensive veterinary and animal services along with associated administration buildings. When a zoo is part of a larger park, for example, a state park, use the appropriate site dimension category to identify such land-use characteristics.

4500

Public safety-related facility

4510

Fire and rescue station

4520

Police station

4530

Emergency operation center

4600

Jails, penitentiaries, detention centers, and other correctional facilities

4700

Cemetery, monument, tombstone, or mausoleum

The three traditional cemetery types are: the monument cemetery, the lawn cemetery, and the garden memorial park. Each is a distinct facility type, although it may appear that the main difference is in the way the site is developed. The monument cemetery, which evolved from ancient churchyard burial grounds, has stone memorials. The lawn cemetery, features lawns with extensive landscaping and looks like a park, and the memorials are sometimes bronze. They evolved from a need to have wide public acceptance for new cemeteries. The garden memorial park is a logical extension of the lawn cemetery with elaborate sculptures and architectural features that counter the monotonous lawns and memorials. Memorials in all types of cemeteries vary from a simple tombstone to elaborate mausoleums. Many plans recognize the open space quality of cemeteries by placing jogging and bike trails adjacent to such areas. Also, some cemeteries have allowed other recreational uses on unplotted parts of the property. Classify or capture such uses of a cemetery in the activity dimension.

4800

Funeral homes and cremation facilities

Land-use plans traditionally treated such facilities as serving a community function. Even though many funeral homes now are for-profit enterprises, for lack of a more suitable category, this facility type remains in the community facility category.

5000 Transportation-related facilities #BEBEBE

5100


Linear or network feature

Many local land-use databases do not have parcel IDs for road segments, including rights-of-way. A typical community may have as much as 15% of its total land consumed by such linear features. Tracking the total amount of land consumed by such facilities is becoming increasingly critical for answering many planning applications. Even in cases where GIS-based maps ignore roads as a category when mapping, the underlying geometry has polygons assigned to the rights-of-way. This category is a way to assign a structure type for such polygons in the GIS, or for parcels that are road segments in the database. See the LBCS web site for further details about this issue.

5110

Pedestrian trail, sidewalks, etc.

5120

Bicycle and other nonmotorized paths

5130

Highways and roads

The subcategories provided for roads follow the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA) functional road classification scheme. This scheme explains to Metropolitan Planning Organizations how they can meet specific reporting requirements of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991. Many local and state agencies use the same categories for their local planning applications. The two additional subcategories, local and alley, provided below can capture some additional local road types. Local roads may be private or unfunded roads. Alleys are commonly used in denser urban areas. There is no color scheme for roads in most local planning applications; they are left white or colored black. Depending on the scale of the map (regional or statewide maps), roads are may be shown as dark (usually black) lines. But ISTEA reporting requirements specify the following scheme for regional or statewide maps: Interstate highways — Blue solid line. Other Freeways and expressways — Brown solid line. Other principal arterials — Red solid line. Minor arterials — Green solid line

5131

Principal arterial — interstate

5132

Principal arterial — freeway and expressway

5133

Other principal arterial

5134

Minor arterial

5135

Major collector

5136

Minor collector

5137

Local road

5138

Alley

5139

Other nonclassified road

5140

Highway bridges and tunnels

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify this distinction. This category may be applicable when individual segments of roads are classified. For many local land-use applications, this linear facility (along with the right-of-way) may appear as a road segment. As local databases improve their accuracy, this category will increasingly become significant.

5150

Railroads, including monorails, etc.

5160

Waterways

5200

Automobile parking facilities

5210

Surface parking, open

5220

Surface parking, covered

5230

Multistoried parking structure with ramps

5240

Underground parking structure with ramps

5250

Rooftop parking facility

5300

Bus stop shelter

5400

Bus or truck maintenance facility

5500

Water transportation or marine related

5510

Port fuel facility

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

5511

Port fuel facility with anchored tanks, with back-up power

5512

Port fuel facility with anchored tanks, without back-up power

5513

Port fuel facility with unanchored tanks, with back-up power

5514

Port fuel facility with unanchored tanks, without back-up power

5515

Port fuel facility with buried tanks

5520

Pier, dock, wharf, or jetty

5530

Lighthouse

5540

Riverboats and other anchored facilities

Includes riverboats and barges used for casinos, entertainment, residential, or other purposes. For anchored parts of such facilities, include them in this category as well.

5550

Port storage or warehouse

5551

Stationary port handling equipment

5552

Rail mounted port handling equipment

5553

Port warehouses

5600

Air and space transportation facility

5610

Runway

5620

Airport maintenance and hangar facility

5630

Airport control tower

5640

Heliport facility

5650

Glideport, seaport, stolport, ultralight or baloonport facility

5700

Railroad facility

5710

Railroad switching facility

5720

Railroad sheds and other support structures

6000 Utility and other nonbuilding structures #858585

6100


Utility structures on right-of-way

6110

Electric lines, phone and cable lines, etc.

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6111

Distribution circuits with seismically designed components

6112

Distribution circuits with standard components

6120

Gas and fuel lines

6130

Water supply lines

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6131

Brittle pipelines

6132

Ductile pipelines

6140

Steam and air conditioning lines

6150

Irrigation channels

6160

Sewer and waste water lines

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6161

Brittle pipelines

6162

Ductile pipelines

6200

Water-supply-related facility

6210

Water supply pump station

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6211

Pumping plant with anchored equipment < 10 MGD

6212

Pumping plant with unanchored equipment < 10 MGD

6213

Pumping plant with anchored equipment > 10 MGD

6214

Pumping plant with unanchored equipment >10 MGD

6220

Dam

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

These categories also match the facility types specified in the Federal Geographic Data Committee's facility standards.

6221

Earth dam, arch

6222

Earth dam, multi-arch

6223

Buttress dam

6224

Gravity dam, rockfill

6225

Gravity dam, concrete

6226

Gravity dam, masonry

6227

Gravity dam, stone

6228

Gravity dam, timber crib

6230

Levee

6240

Culvert

6250

Water tank (elevated, at grade, underground)

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6251

On-ground anchored concrete tank

6252

On-ground unanchored concrete tank

6253

On-ground anchored steel tank

6254

On-ground unanchored steel tank

6255

Above ground steel tank

6256

On-ground wood tank

6257

Buried concrete tank

6260

Wells

6270

Water treatment and purification (WTP) facility

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6271

WTP with anchored components < 50 MGD

6272

WTP with unanchored components < 50 MGD

6273

WTP with anchored components 50-200 MGD

6274

WTP with unanchored components 50-200 MGD

6275

WTP with anchored components > 200 MGD

6276

WTP with unanchored components > 200 MGD

6280

Water reservoir

6290

Other irrigation facilities

6300

Sewer and waste-related facility

6310

Storage or pumping station facility

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6311

Lift stations with anchored components < 10 MGD

6312

Lift stations with unanchored components < 10 MGD

6313

Lift stations with anchored components > 10 MGD

6314

Lift stations with unanchored components > 10 MGD

6320

Landfill facility

Area fill and trench fill are two commonly known facility types. The area method is employed to fill a depleted quarry pit, a canyon, or a natural depression. After a day's worth of dumping, heavy tractors compact the solid wastes evenly, and cover the layer with dirt or other inert solid wastes. In canyon-type landfills, cover materials may come from scraping the walls. The final grade of such landfills is made even with the surrounding topography. In the trench fill method, dump trucks deposit waste in trenches dug out for this purpose. Heavy bulldozers in the trench compact and even the surface. At day's end, the bulldozers use dirt from the excavated material to cover the surface. Heavy front-end loaders, scrapers, and other equipment are used for digging trenches. When this type of landfill is completed, its grade is usually higher than the original grade. Because landfills try to keep the working surface as small as possible, they may not be visible in aerial pictures. Landfills are also synonymous with resource recovery facilities where some of the waste products are separated for recycling or additional treatment.

6330

Incinerator, composting, or similar facility

Mainly industrial in character, these facilities may sometimes be co-located with landfills and other solid waste operations.

6340

Hazardous waste storage facility

This single category should serve most planning applications. However, communities that have a variety of hazardous waste facilities and want to further delineate such facilities may do so by using the subcategories. But for the rest, this one category should suffice. All emergency preparedness plans require inventory of such facilities, and common applications include local traffic routing rules.

6341

High-level waste facility

These facilities handle the most hazardous of all waste products--fission products, which have high-intensity and penetrating radioactivity. The processes involved are heavily mechanized because humans cannot come into contact with these such materials.

6342

Transuranic waste facility

These facilities mainly bury the radioactive materials because they decay longer (half-life may be several thousand years) than the fission type. Equipment and structures reflect mining and large-scale industrial operations.

6343

Spent fuel facility

Normally these are co-located with nuclear reactor facilities and contain large water pools to store spent fuel. Such fuel is considered high-level waste, but many former nuclear reactor sites still function as spent-fuel facilities until the fuel can be disposed.

6344

Low-level waste facility

Such facilities collect, store, and process low-level radiation waste from industrial, commercial, and institutional sources. Their primary operation is to reduce the volume of radioactive material though filtration, evaporation, incineration, and compaction. The transportation and movement of wastes to these facilities are regulated and adequate emergency preparedness includes risks of pollution from such facilities.

6350

Sewer treatment plant

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6351

Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) with anchored components < 50

6352

WWTP with unanchored components < 50 MGD

6353

WWTP with anchored components 50-200 MGD

6354

WWTP with unanchored components 50-200 MGD

6355

WWTP with anchored components > 200 MGD

6356

WWTP with unanchored components > 200 MGD

6400

Gas or electric power generation facility

6410

Gas storage and distribution facility

6420

Gas compressor stations

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6421

Gas compressor stations with anchored components

6422

Gas compressor stations with unanchored components

6430

Power generation plants

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6431

Power plants with anchored components < 100 MW

6432

Power plants with unanchored components < 100 MW

6433

Power plants with anchored components > 100 MW

6434

Power plants with unanchored components >100 MW

6440

Electric substation and distribution facility

Because these structures are of special concern for emergency management and other disaster recovery applications, they appear in a separate category with subcategories useful for emergency planners. Many state and federal emergency management applications (as described in the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency's HAZUS manual) specify these distinctions.

6441

Low-voltage (115 KV) substation with anchored components

6442

Low-voltage (115 KV) substation with unanchored components

6443

Medium-voltage (230 KV) substation with anchored components

6444

Medium-voltage (230 KV) substation with unanchored components

6445

High-voltage (500 KV) substation with anchored components

6446

High-voltage (500 KV) substation with unanchored components

6450

Geothermal facility

6460

Solar and other forms of energy facility

Includes windmills, solar panel farms, etc. Windmills are also known by other specialized terms, such as air mill, horizontal air mill, post mill, smock mill, and tower mill.

6500

Communication towers

6510

Radio, TV, or wireless transmitter

6520

Weather stations or transmitters

6600

Environmental monitoring station (air, soil, etc.)

6700

Sign or billboard

6900

Other miscellaneous structures

6910

Kiosks

6920

Roadside stand, pushcarts, etc.

Includes movable units that may or may not be permanently anchored.

6930

Highway rest stops and welcome centers

6940

Playground equipment

Includes swings, tot-lots, sand lots, and other playground equipment.

6950

Fountain, sculpture, etc.

Includes other aesthetic structures and streetscape elements, such as benches, planters, fountains, hydrants, flag pedestals, etc.

6970

Outdoor stage, bandstand, or similar structure

Either covered or uncovered, these structures serve as stages for performances in outdoor arenas and gathering places.

7000 Specialized military structures #FFC0CB

These are broad categories for military and defense establishments. It is a complex category that may include other structure types. Local planning applications are only concerned about this at a broad level, but base planners may want to add additional subcategories for some specialized operations, as shown for naval facilities. However, for normal land-use inventories necessary for base planning, apply categories other than "military installation" from this structure-type dimension. In combination with coding from the activity dimension, base planners can filter a variety of land-use characteristics suitable for base planning.

7100

Joint services facility

7200

Air Force facility

7300

Army and marine corps facility

7400

Naval facility

7410

Naval installation

7420

Weapons station

7430

Submarine base

7450

Training center

7460

Communications station

7470

Supply center

7480

Reserve station

7500

Armory building

Structures enclosing large enclosed space designed for military training. They may have incidental storage and office space within the main structure.

8000 Sheds, farm buildings, or agricultural facilities #228B22

Use this category for all agricultural structures. For tracking specialized farm and agricultural structures, use the subcategories. This broad category also includes lumber mills, maple sugaring facilities (sugar camp, sugar bush, etc.), agricultural terraces (to hold water and allow infiltration), waterways and stabilized paths (to direct runoff), sediment basins (to hold silt), and fencing (mainly to reduce livestock density).

8100

Grain silos and other storage structure for grains and agricultural products

8200

Livestock facility

This is a catch-all category for all livestock-related structures that serve horses, cattle, sheep, etc.

8210

Dairy facility

Includes barns, milking barns, milking parlors, etc.

8220

Poultry facility

Includes poultry houses for chickens, broilers, layer hens, etc.

8230

Cattle facility

8240

Stables and other equine-related facilities

Includes horse trot-tracks, and other horse training or veterinary facilities for horses.

8300

Animal feed operations facility

Although they may be integrated into a livestock facility, some are separately located.

8310

Confined feedlot facility

Although confined feedlots often refer to feeding operations for hogs, the agriculture industry has had a history of confined feedlot operations for a number of decades. Poultry feedlots, for example, have been confined for many years. Another term that is synonymous but with a different meaning is the US EPA and USDA definition for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO). This definition refers to feedlots greater than a certain capacity, in this case 1000 animal units. An animal unit is defined as the equivalent of one beef cow. Although definitions vary in zoning and other local regulations, the trend is to have some measurement unit based on impacts of effluent. Using this measure, a CAFO is any facility serving more than 1,000 cattle or 2,500 hogs or 55,000 turkeys, etc. The CAFO definition has other equivalents for other livestock types. If CAFOs have to be measured separate from confined feedlot facilities (i.e., that includes facilities with less than 1,000 animal units), create another subcategory or a special field to keep track of the CAFO units.

8400

Animal waste-handling facility

8410

In ground silos

Normally they may not be visible, but newer facilities have air vents and other gas recycling equipment co-located.

8420

Waste lagoons

These are open pits and low-lying areas where animal waste is drained from a feedlot or a confined facility. Although fast disappearing, some of these still do exist and the terms used to describe them vary.

8430

Concrete storage units, covered

Unlike other types of animal waste-handling facilities, these are more portable.

8440

Concrete storage units, uncovered

Unlike other types of animal waste-handling facilities, these are more portable.

8450

Composting facility

When such structures are part of a combined animal-waste handling facilities, use the higher-level Animal waste-handling facility category.

8500

Greenhouses

Rarely, but, also known as glasshouses, these are enclosed structures with or without climate control facilities for growing plants and vegetation under controlled environments.

8600

Hatcheries

8700

Kennels and other canine-related facilities

8800

Apiary and other related structures

This is a catch-all category all specialized structures and facilities, such as the following: apiary, which is a bee house or a place where beehives are stored; dovecote, a pigeon or doves house that is usually set above ground; a duckhouse (for ducks), falconry, a facility for housing, training, and breeding birds of prey; etc.

8900

Other farm and farming-related structures

Farm-related structures include barns and others, such as: ash house, a farm building to store ash or fertilizers; backhouse, a brewing house attached to a farm or farming structure; bark house, a farm building to store barks of trees; hay barns and chaff houses for storing hay and animal feed; boiling house, a structure where animal feed is prepared; chitting house, a shed to germinate and grow potatoes; laithe, a cow-house with crop storage space; hemmel, a shelter for farm animals with no stalls; etc.

9000 No Structure #FFFFFF

9100


Not applicable to this dimension

Use this code as a permanent code for those records that will never be classified in this dimension. It is normal for land-use databases to have records that may never be classified and left blank instead. But LBCS recommends that all records have a code because some computer applications may not be able handle blank entries (null values in database terminology).

9200

Unclassifiable structure

Use this category as a temporary placeholder for activities that cannot be grouped anywhere until the classification scheme is updated. Check the LBCS web site to see how others have dealt with such unique activities before revising the classification scheme.

9300

Subsurface structures

Use this category for activities that occur below the surface that are of no interest to the applications that will use this data set. Assigning one of the unknown categories may be inappropriate.

9900

To be determined

Use this code as a placeholder until an appropriate code can be assigned. It is normal for land-use databases to have records that may never be classified and left blank instead. But LBCS recommends that all records have a code because some computer applications may not be able handle blank entries (null values in database terminology). This code could also be used as the default value for data-entry work. The subcategories serve the same purpose for other coding levels.

9990

To be determined