A Ladder of Citizen Participation

Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 35(4): 216-224, 1969

By: American Planning Association

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Social Equity

This article is a classic text that proposes a typology of citizen participation visualized on the rungs of a ladder, leading from manipulation to citizen control. It describes each level and the category it belongs to and lists some of the critiques of citizen control, though ultimately advocating for its pursuit.