American cities have a large supply of garages that could be converted into affordable apartments, but off-street parking requirements often stand in the way. If a home owner wants to convert a two-car garage into an accessory dwelling unit (ADU), she typically must replace the garage parking spaces with two new off-street parking spaces, plus an additional off-street parking space for the new unit. While some cities have eliminated off-street parking requirements for ADUs, this is often not enough to remove the barrier or address the concerns of neighbors.
This edition of Zoning Practice details a proposal for zoning reforms to facilitate garage-to-apartment conversions. It acknowledges the potential neighborhood impacts of eliminating parking minimums and posits a market-based solution.
About the Authors
Anne Brown is an Assistant Professor in the School of Planning, Public Policy, and Management at the University of Oregon. Her research examines the intersection of equity, innovative mobility, travel behavior, and transportation finance.
Vinit Mukhija is a Professor and Department Chair of Urban Planning in the Luskin School of Public Affairs at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). His research focuses on informal housing and slums in developing countries and “Third World-like” housing conditions (including colonias, unpermitted trailer parks, and illegal garage apartments) in the United States.
Donald Shoup, FAICP
Donald Shoup, FAICP, is Distinguished Research Professor in the Department of Urban Planning at UCLA. In 2018, Shoup and his co-authors detailed a zoning proposal to facilitate garage-to-apartment conversions, published in APA's Zoning Practice as well as the Journal of Planning Education and Research. This proposal builds off the lessons of Shoup's landmark book The High Cost of Free Parking. Shoup is a Fellow of the American Institute of Certified Planners and an Honorary Professor at the Beijing Transportation Research Center.